The bouzouki is a stringed lute folk musical instrument with a pear-shaped resonator ( vessel ) of elongated wooden strips , the NTOUGIA and long arm, arm or sleeve with keys aside for tuning ( tuning ) . Along the arm are thin metal plates , perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the arm , which is keyed to a thin slit and said frets . The spaces between the frets , define the distance of the semitone .
The modern bouzouki has three or four double strings which hits the musician with a small button on the pen . Originally bouzouki brought three pairs of metal strings tuned in tonnes PE -LA -PE (there are also reports of the seven-string or oktachorda triphonic bouzouki again restringing PE -LA – PE, except that the bass and sometimes PE and EE consisted of three strings ) , and later became the fourth pair and tuning DO – FA -LA – PE ( again per pair) . Previously the tunings ( Duzen ) changed according to the street music ( maqam ) of the performed melody . Those procedures were maintained until the interwar period and gradually lost , definitively not the prevalence of tetrachords .
The origin of the bouzouki like instrument is Greek , while it is just like all people, as a kind of transformation of ancient Pandoura . The origin of the bouzouki , as a descendant of ancient Greek music , placed in ancient Greece , where there was the ancient equivalent instrument also known as ” Pandouridion ” or ” stringed ” because it had three strings . Strong supporter of this source is the marble era , the most famous is that of Mantinea (4th century BC ) , now exhibited in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens , and depicts the mythical struggle between Apollo and Marsyas , where the ancient pandoura played by a muse seated on a rock. Some accept only Turkish origin of the name (buzuq), although it is likely that the word comes from the Persian word “tambur-e bozorg” which means ” great banjo ” by converting the sound “rg” to “k” in Greek and Turkish. According to this view , the bouzouki held a leading role in folk music , has shape, size and arrangement of strings , about the same for thousands of years . He’s from the ancient Greeks to the Byzantines , survived the Turkish occupation and the flourishing nowadays spent the first period of a challenge at the beginning of the century . Variations of this ancient instrument was within several years of his life and had the names pandoura or pandourida , stringed , banjo , thamboura , tambourine , psaltery , bouzouki and many other things with which named other smaller or larger instruments of the same family , the tambour . In fact it was just minor modifications and variations of the same basic body, tambour . The musicologist and critic Phoebus Anogianakis describes the course of the tambour and the story of his name to this day . For the Byzantine era sources are many, as pandoura and the kanun , was one of the main instruments for the teaching of Byzantine church music , as archbishop Chrys says in his book on Byzantine music .
Contemporary history- Rebetico
In the second half of the 19th century traced the roots of rebetiko , which began to be paid to the bouzouki accompaniment , but not exclusively , as it became later . In 1935 formed the first professional troupe rebetiko ( usual shape with two bouzouki , a guitar and a baglama or variants) . The troupe participated Markos Vamvakaris , bouzouki and sang , Stratos Payoumtzis singing mainly Anestis Delias bouzouki , guitar and singing , and George Batis baglama playing and singing . Rebetiko this genre identified with the bouzouki and the body perfected and exploited at the hands of major performers among whom were Vamvakaris Tsitsanis Papaioannou , Xiotis , Mitsakis and many others .
Manolis Chiotis and four-string bouzouki
The big change in the art of bouzouki made by Manolis Chian , who had the idea to add another double string and wind up in the logic of the guitar . Manufacturers of the tetrachord bouzouki luthiers brothers Panayi . The tetrachord , as more pluralistic , enable more and more complex chords and because it has more strings facilitated the performer to play the scales making shorter trips on the fretboard with the fingers of his left hand .
From the manufacturing point of view bouzouki can differ not only in the number of strings and other characteristics , eg Sleeve length , width , height , depth of the speaker or board, the width of the wooden board slices . These differences determine the manufacturer with experience and depending on the sound you want to start the instrument , modify operating procedures to achieve sharper , deeper and heavier sound.
The size and type of the speaker play a role in the tonality of the instrument while the sleeve length , and thus the strings give the difference in tone of the instrument. It is understood that each length sleeves have different width frets bouzouki since all have the same number of frets . Great importance has the sound and quality of the wood from which it is made by the institution. For the construction of the vessel is considered to be the finest woods mulberry , the Pear , cherry , acacia , elm and walnut follow , the plane of chestnut . Wood board should be solid , as those who have wood that comes from slow-growing trees . The lid of the vessel must be made of cedar or spruce (preferably spruce ) if possible piece . The lid is playing the main role in the sound because it vibrates and amplifies and extends the string of pulses . The sound quality is playing the role bootblack and processing varnishing . Best is the natural bootblack from gomamalakka is passed by hand in several layers, in the traditional way . Thus the surfaces of the wood are more compact and more reflective , beyond the best aesthetic result . Sleeve should be very dry and hard wood to non warpage and remove the strings from the fingerboard , so the body becomes bevel and dyskolopaichto . To accomplish this the organokataskefastes use various techniques and each one has its own secrets . One can put in a neck a metal rod that increases resistance to warping , but adds a lot of weight . Such structure is the so-called “industrial ” bouzouki . The best wood for a neck is maple, elm and walnut . The plate sits on the sleeves and in it wedged the wire frets must be very hard , compact, durable and beautiful wood . The best about this place is ebony , the rosewood, boxwood and roses , depending on the color you want to have the fingerboard ( ebony black , rosewood kokkiniariko the dark , the reddish rosewood with beautiful waters and boxwood light ) . Finally come the decorative items that add to the bouzouki . These , as many are, the sound becomes dull . That’s why you hear the best sound of the bouzouki simple , cleaner and more ” kampanato ” . You certainly have a bouzouki decorative natural materials (wood , mother of pearl , ivory , tortoiseshell ) and is ” ploumisto ” and katharoicho . This lies in the craftsmanship of the manufacturer.
Renowned manufacturer was notorious Joseph who made bouzouki for older artists . It is said that the first quartette he created in the early 1950s , bespoke and suggestions Manolis Chian .
A special kind Bouzouki , very deep and long but narrow surface cap , which puts a special sound , is the knee. Knee was playing great army Payoumtzis the ” quartet of Piraeus ” , the first rebetiko troupe founded by Markos Vamvakaris as above .
Other species, stringed again , is misompouzouko or mesompouzouko . This has a smaller speaker that its shape is nearly hemisphere ( rather than pear-shaped ) and the sleeves are a bit shorter ( string length is 60 or 62 cm ) .
Baglamas or baglama ( from the Turkish baglama), is plucked musical instrument , the bouzouki congenital (but smaller in size ) used in Greek folk music . It generally takes three double strings . The sound of baglama is acute . Each string is tuned an octave higher than the corresponding bouzouki .
By Savvas – Stamatios Kar., Α1