First evidence for Iceland is considered that the Greek navy Pytheas , who lived in Marseille and he visited the island between 332-310 BC . Wrote that arrived on the island of Thule after 6 days sailing north of Britain , near a frozen sea . There the summer sun remained above the horizon almost all night . The testimonies of Pytheas were great in their time , so missed most of the travel narratives of …
In the 8th century . arrived in Iceland with leather boats Irish monks . Traces of their installation are saved on the south coast mainly . The Vikings sailed with light ships in the 9th century by the West primarily Norway , but also from other facilities , such as Ireland , and settled on the island . For almost 300 years the country was independent , even developing the first modern democracy in Western Europe . In 1262 , however, was subdued in Norway and Denmark in 1397 .
Iceland gained full independence from Denmark only in 1944 .
Arriving by boat in one rugged coastline of the southeastern fjord of Iceland , has circumnavigate the North Atlantic . One can only admire the courage and seamanship of Vikings here 1,100 years sailed these rough and icy seas , 1,000 kilometers of empty ocean , with 25metra handmade vessels .
Today the population of the island is extremely homogeneous , with Scandinavian and Celtic origin . The standard of living is high and there are few social tensions .
The Icelandic language
Even in the darkest times of medieval plagues , famines and natural disasters , the Icelanders did not stop to give great importance to education . Today Icelanders have one of the highest in the world per capita newspaper circulation and buying more books (per capita ) than any other people . Almost all Icelanders speak perfect English and perfect this bilingualism is according to some, the death warrant for the Icelandic language . The future will tell … The Icelandic because of the isolation of the island , as written today is written in Norway in 900 m ( the accent but has changed) . For many centuries all thought that the Icelandic language was dying out, but today is vibrant , rich and beloved by Icelanders . The more closely related to the Icelandic language is that of the island of Pharos , that Icelanders feel a special bond with their Faroianous . The Icelandic has dialektous.To 92 % of Icelanders live in urban centers , and only 8% in rural areas. The capital Reykjavik gathers 170,000 of the 260,000 Icelanders .
The glacier Vatna (Vatnajoekull) is the largest worldwide except Arctic regions . Itself has more surface area than all other European glaciers together.
One of the languages of Vatnajoekull leads to the fabled lagoon Joekullsarloen, where large and small icebergs detached from the glacier and argopleoun the crystal clear waters of the lake, until you encounter the Atlantic . Although Iceland touches the Arctic Circle , embracing the Gulf Stream . So the climate is relatively mild and the ports do not freeze the cheimona.Simadia global warming lie and Iceland . At the Association for the Protection of Nature in Iceland , if current trends continue , the Icelandic pegetones will disappear in 200-300 years .
Throughout Iceland is volcanic . As the two plates of the earth’s crust forming the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean are removed , voids and cracks from where the lava burst . In Iceland there are 200 volcanoes , many geysers (geyzir), and other points solfatares impressive volcanic activity .
In terms of forest cover , Iceland is a biblical disaster scenario that can happen to all mankind . In prehistoric times , when they came and settled in the country of the Vikings , Iceland was covered by 60 % of large forests . There were no indigenous inhabitants , or herded animals. Over the centuries , however, these forests have disappeared , not only because the Vikings were cutting trees to build ships , but also because they brought with them sheep. Result, deforestation , soil erosion and desertification . Today the third ground has officially been desert . The biggest desert in Europe , both dead and the Sahara . The ” harvest ” of logs swept along by the currents from Siberia and Norway to the beaches of Iceland was until recently addressed one of the main sources of timber and important revenue for the owners of these beaches. The Christmas fir Reykjavik is always a gift from Norway !
Iceland is famous for its natural beauty and pristine nature. The combination of volcanoes and glaciers on its territory creates a stunning and unique natural environment . Natural geothermal resources is very popular and used by both residents of the country and by tourists as outdoor pools and spas.
GEOGRAPHY PAPER B2
ANNA Κ., ANNA MARIA Κ.,