Dedicate to prayer the Lord sanctifies us with the prayers of the pioneers of salvation for all of us !
1 ) The first orthodox light in Alaska , St. Evanthia – Joanna H.
Alaska is the state of the United States of America , bordered to the east by Canada , bordering the Arctic and the Pacific ocean. Alaska belonged to Russia until 1867 , the year he sold in the U.S. by Tsar Alexander II in the amount of
$ 7.2 million , and in 1959 was named the Confederate state . The exploration started in 1741 by Vitus Bering , on behalf of Russia . The continued in 1778 James Cook and the early 19th century expeditions explored the shores of the Pacific to the North Frozen ocean. The systematic exploration of Alaska and the colonization that followed due mainly to the Siberian and American hunters , who in 1784 founded companies for hunting animals and selling furs .
The northwestern part of the American continent consists of a huge peninsula , the “Big Country ” that the indigenous language called ” Ali – even – Sa ” and came to us as Alaska.
Alaska is separated from Asia by a narrow strip of sea , the Bering Strait and east it borders with Canada . The geographic latitude is the same as Norway . The southwestern edge includes an arc of 150 volcanic islands , known as ” Aleutian Islands”. It is a country 12 times bigger than Greece , and the climate in the polar north, ocean to the south , with temperatures ranging from – 62 degrees C in winter to +25 C in summer .
The night lasts six months , with only lights the moon and the polar auroras . The day lasts six months and this is but blurred and the sun goes down quite a bit as we get closer to June , so it rises just after sunset , so the Alaska called “land of the midnight sun .” The largest river , the Yukon is frozen eight months a year.
Many volcanoes and vast glaciers , araiotati vegetation and polar animals and few , depending on its extent – people one finds in Alaska . The natives belong to different tribes . Domestically , the northern and western coasts resident Eskimos . The Aleutian islands inhabit , the Sitka Colossus , the Atlantic Coast Redskins belonging to tribes Kenagtzon and Tsougkatson . Americans are well Kodiak .
Today the composition of the population of Alaska has changed a lot because of the great migration of white , brought together natural and culture , and their problems …
In Alaska there are significant deposits of gold , silver and other metals , oil and animals such as reindeer , seals , salmon , which , together with its valuable forests, have contributed much to the economic development.
The existence of Alaska spoke first Dane Vitus Bering , who served in the Russian Navy . Discovered by Russian navigator Gkrozntef , in 1730 and explored by the Bering and Kirikof 1740-1741 , when it became a colony of tsarist Russia. The March 1867 was sold to the Americans rather than the entire $ 7.2 million ! The initials ” acquisition ” of the U.S. became ” Territorion ” in 1912 and concludes in 1958 to become ” 49th ” State of the USA.
Two . The first orthodox light in Alaska
The Christian message first arrived in Alaska from the Russian traders , who were active but mainly with financial incentives . Showed serious zeal to baptize natives, because baptized showed great devotion to contractors and help them a lot in their work . However , in 1774 the sincerely pious Selechof Gregory , founder of Rosoamerikanikis Company built a church and school in Kodiak , baptized many natives and along with his partner , Ivan Kgolikof asked the Tsarina Catherine II and the Holy Synod of the Russian Church to sent regular missionaries , whose maintenance would take himself and his associates .
On 24 September 1794 the supply ship of Russian trade missions landed on the island of Kodiak the first missionary group, after a trip that lasted more than forty days. The group consisted of 4 Hieromonks , 2 deacon and two monks of the famous monasteries of Valaam – intellectual whose father was the great Russian starets Saint – Nazarian and Konief ( Lake Ladoga ) , headed by Archimandrite Ioasaf Bolotof . Their names were Ioasaf , Iouvenalios, whom , Athanasius , Blessed Nektarios , Stephen, German and Ioasaf .
Despite the terrible difficulties and obstacles put in their way by the colonial behavior of most Russian traders, missionaries are worthy , with God’s help , they managed to establish the Orthodox Church on the frozen Great Country .
Thus began a real epic . Orthodox missionaries kakopathountes , chlefazomenoi and the abandonment , emerged the only friends and defenders of indigenous peoples. In their faces , orthodoxy appeared as genuine Church , crucified but possible , free from the passions of the Western missionaries who experienced Christianity in America an ally and partner state and economic interests summarized in the famous ” 3M » (Missionary = missionary , Military = military , Merchant = merchant ) .
In July 1796 the Russian Holy Synod proclaimed Alaska ypoepiskopi Irkutsk in Siberia to the archimandrite first bishop Ioasaf . Unfortunately , the ship ” Phoenix ,” which carried the bishop and his entourage to take up their duties , wrecked and Bishop Ioasaf drowned along with their attendants Makarios and wreaths .
By missionaries of the first step , Fr Athanasius and Fr Nektarios returned to Russia and left the frozen lands Iouvenalios, whom and monk Makarios and Munich, Germany.
Father Makarios moved to the larger of Aleutian Islands , the Ounalaska , where he built the church , baptized 2,500 natives and 536 marriages celebrated .
Three . The Saints of Alaska
The Saints of Alaska celebrated together on 13 December , the day of their assemblies ( = feast in their honor ) .
A. The holy Hieromartyr Iouvenalios, whom
St. Iouvenalios, whom , martyr of the American continent , proceeded as lone hiker in Alaska’s interior preaching Christianity with humility and success. He Tsegkai the bay , where live Tsougkatsoi , and further north , the Colossus and other remote Indian tribes . Arriving on the shores of Lake Iliaminas the summer of 1796 , he was baptized in two years about 5000 natives .
But where murdered by local shamans ( shamans ) , watering with the blood of the frozen land of Alaska , proving that the Church is authentic when sacrificing and not when other sacrifices on the altar of ” piety ” or any interests . According to tradition , his body stood up and headed for the performers , who , fearful , fell over and shredding with their axes .
B. St. Germain
The humble saint monk Germanos (1756-1836) , lagging only the missionary group and finding against him the Baranof , hard Rosoamerikanikis new director of the Company ( the “black page ” in the history of the Church of Alaska ) , retired to become a monk in small lonely island Elovyg ( = island of fir ) , who renamed it New Valaam. There he practiced mental prayer in the Orthodox tradition , the same humble and osiaki presence, became the great spiritual father of Aleutian .
Large ascetic , hard on oneself and lenient with others, full of love for God and all his creatures lived on the island of protecting as could the poor natives, taking care of orphans ( created a little orphanage ) and transmitting not only the evangelical message and the grace of God , overflowing from the inside like a waterfall . Miraculous and perceptive claimed lush visions and lived in the company of angels . Mediating favor of native managed to win the appreciation of his successor Baranof , the Ianofsky , which became spiritual disciple and eventually a monk.
After a touching and holy life , died on November 15, 1836 and his body remained incorrupt for at least a month, waiting to allow the weather going priest on the island for Christian burial . His memory is celebrated on the day of the Assumption , and on 9 August ( day of formal agiokatataxis in 1970 ) and 13 December .
To his credit was a few decades ago the Brotherhood of St. Herman of Alaska in platinum , California, which is a shining beacon of Orthodoxy in the Americas. From the Brotherhood was investigated and finally edited shocking life of Saint Germain . See the Greek version of St Herman of Alaska , translated and edited by Peter Botsi series ” Russian Philokalia Neptics “, Athens 1995 .
C. The Holy Martyr Peter the Aleutian
He was one of the orthodox Aleutian working in the colony of Rosoamerikanikis Company in Fort Ross , California, for the supply of Russian colonists and members of the Company in Alaska . The colony that became the cause of friction between the Russians and the Spanish sovereigns of California , as the latter thought that the Russians covet San Francisco.
Thus , the 1815 Aleutian arrested about 20 of whom eventually jailed 14, including St. Peter .
[ Continue with a quote from St. Herman of Alaska , Edited by Peter Botsi , ibid , pp. 38-39 .
“… Another time , continues Gianofsky of ‘d say ( St. Germain ) that the Spaniards captured in California 14 Aleutian . The Jesuits are pushing n ‘ embrace the faith of Catholics , but they did not accept anything . “We are Christians ,” they replied . The Jesuits countered : “No, you are heretics and schismatics . If you succumb , will torture you to death . ” Eventually they were put in jail by both. The evening came to prison Jesuits lamps and lighted candles and again began to press for n ‘ embrace the faith of Catholics. “We are Christians ,” answered the Aleutian , ” we do not change our faith .” The Jesuits began to torture one , in front of others. A hinge broke his leg , then another and then the joints of the fingers , one after the other. After pieces by the feet and hands. The blood was running , but the witness and endure repeated firmly reply : “I am a Christian .” Eventually , of torture and the loss of blood , he died .
The next day the Jesuits threatened to torture his friend in the same way . That same night , however, took command from Monterey to transfer all prisoners Aleutian there. So , the other day , all but one who was killed , fled . This my friend narrated the one martyred . [ … ] .
When I finished the description , Fr Germany asked:
– What was the name of the Aleutian ?
– Peter replied , but I do not remember his surname .
The Elder stood up , stood in front of the picture , made with reverence the cross and said :
– Holy New Martyr Peter, intercede for us . ” ]
D. Saint James in the Alaska
St. James Netsetov born in 1802 in Ounalaska , father and Russian mother Aleutian . Growing up loving the culture and flaming of Christian faith , he studied at the Theological Seminary of Irkutsk , where he was ordained priest and returned to the white missionary field in his hometown , to work and he for his countrymen .
In Alaska ministered thirty-six years , faced with the harsh environmental conditions , and the shamans , who did everything to prevent it . He traveled to the most remote areas of the country , until the tribe of Gioupik , who lived in the lower river valley Gioukonos . He is the first missionary penetrated so deeply after the holy Juvenal . Not only declared , but took care to education and social life of the natives , while offering and the Christian sacraments , and indeed of confession and the Eucharist . It also dealt with the translation in the local language of the Bible and other holy books .
After many adventures , delivered the holy soul in Sitka on July 26, 1865 and classified officially to the saints of Orthodoxy in 1994 .
E. The great missionary St. Innocent of Alaska Veniaminof
St. Innocent Veniaminof is a modern Father of the Church and one of the most important figures in the history of Orthodoxy . Born in a village in Siberia in 1797 , and his name was John . Orphaned small but protected him by his uncle , the monk David , who has secured a place in the Theological Seminary of Irkutsk . There he concentrated on learning , but also in practical arts : Google carpenter , mechanic , blacksmith and watchmaker . In 1817 he married , was ordained deacon and priest in 1821 and was appointed to the church of the Annunciation in Irkutsk .
In 1823 he was sent by Bishop Michael Irkutsk in Alaska as part of the mission . He accompanied his brother Stephen, son of Innocent , the Priestess of Catherine and widow mother Thekla . The action in Alaska was monumental. He founded schools , clinics , churches and traveled to every corner to meet the natives , to support them and to transmit the Gospel message. The natives appreciated the unlimited and he lived like one of them and shared the difficult circumstances of their lives , respecting their culture and sharing the hardships .
He wrote , inter alia: Notes on the islands of the region Ounalaska , Main features of living in the Aleutian Islands , Observations on the Aleutian and Kousianon of ATRA , Remarks on language Kolouskanon and Kodiak , and (in the language of the Aleutian , which invented and the alphabet ) Note the way for the kingdom of heaven ( issued and Greek from the Metropolis of Nicopolis titled the Road to the kingdom of heaven ) . Also prepared a grammar of the language and the Aleutian Aleutian – Russian dictionary .
On 25 November 1838 the Priestess Catherine died . Longer had seven children : the Innocent , the Gabriel, Alexander, Catherine , Olga , Friday and Thekla . In 1840, the Rev. John became a monk with the name Innocent in honor of St. Innocent of Irkutsk and on 13 December the Holy Synod elected him bishop of Kamchatka , and Aleutian Islands Kourillon based in Sitka . As bishop served even warmer in mission , with special concern by establishing schools . In 1850 the congregation consists of 15,000 souls .
Then transferred to Siberia and develops missionary and social action in areas enslaved by the Chinese. In 1860 he blessed the young monk Nicholas Kazatkin ( today Saint Nicholas of Japan ) , which passed and met him going to Japan for missionary work .
In 1867 or 68 the saint asked the holy Metropolitan Philaret of Moscow to allow him to resign and retire to a monastery. But St. Philaret slept suddenly and the Holy Synod elected successor to St. Innocent ! The great new location saint excelled once again showing great pastoral and social care. Make sure also to Alaska , establishing an Independent Aleoutiani Diocese based in San Francisco .
St. Innocent reposed in 1879 and was buried in the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius , next to Metropolitan Filaret . His memory is celebrated on March 31 , and on Dec. 13 , along with the other saints of Alaska.
The embassies of the Saints and the Saints of Alaska and let us protect our people ( friends and enemies ) , and all the peoples of Earth SOURCE : Theod . I. Riginiotes
The ORTHODOXIA TODAY IN ALASKA
The Saint German remains alive for the Christians of Alaska and the Orthodox Church in America , with the wonders of . Today two orthodox monasteries continue the fight of St. Germain in the island SPRUCE.
” Among the islands of the Kodiak and Herman Spruce,
into the cold waters of Alaska , is an emerald isle , wooded towering spruce trees , which spanked by strong winds .
With myriad birds – eagles , swallows , gulls, and other birds that find refuge.
There is a large Orthodox cross that stands above the central
coast as a point approaches the island by boat .
Behind the trees is a wooden church modeled after the fifteenth century . It’s Russian church of St. Nilus of Sora.
The monastic way of life
With the holy Nile as a guide and protector , the nuns are trying to imitate the monastic ideals of poverty , and exercising the internal prayer .
Known for his simplicity and extreme poverty voluntary , St. Nilus emphasized the inner life of the monastic life and the practice of the Jesus Prayer . St. Nilus the rule of life consists of two to twelve monks living in a quiet and gathered around the church prefers the ascetic form of monastic life . Called street basilica , and avoid large communes .
Each nun engaged in intense inner spiritual struggle . The most essential weapon is seamless repetition of the Jesus Prayer , “Lord Jesus Christ, have mercy on me.” thereby attempting , through prayer and reading of spiritual , to capture the soul of an image of heavenly beauty and achieve purity of heart. The monastic common life based on the Lord’s commandments and principles of monastic obedience , humility , love , and the rate of own
errands , trying always responds with ” forgive me ” and ” bless “.
The pace of life on the island .
Life in the Cloister of St. Nile is around the ministries of the church feasts and fasts , and a life of prayer .
The sisters wake up in the wee hours of the rule of prayer and then gather at the church for Matins . The breakfasts are usually dealing with quiet activities such as crafts . According to the ancient monastic practice , the nuns are trying to survive by working with hands – mainly through making prayer ropes .
At noon , we have the main meal is served followed by the common prayer ministry .. After we have the ninth hour, Vespers and Compline ,
nuns silently withdrawn their cells for spiritual reading , prayer and rest .
The pace of life has emerged, according to the seasons .
During Lent , the sisters devoted to fasting and prayer , with few distractions .
The welcome return of many forest songbirds heralds spring .
Preparations of the garden starting in May . Plant seedlings carefully .
At the end of spring red salmon begin to return to the breeding grounds , and enter the net fishing. separation filleted
and canning So there is the annual supply of fish .
The sisters gather blackberries and currants during the summer
months and collected wild mushrooms for drying . At the end of
summer, the big comeback of silver salmon fishing is new .
Pilgrims come the summer months – when the seas are calmer and light
the day is more to worship the holy German , and holy Spruce Island. drink holy water and pray .
The hospitality provided by the sisters , and the Hospice of St. Sergius . It is a large room available for women pilgrims
wish to stay longer .
The ship becomes more difficult since September because gale force .
The Cloister of St. Nilus is under the jurisdiction of Bishop Maxim of Western America Diocese of the Serbian Orthodox Church. ” SOURCE : APANTA Orthodoxy
GREEK PEOPLE IN ALASKA
To Ankaratz is the largest city in Alaska where they live most of the Greek state . They number approximately 50 families and most of them deal with restaurants .
The history of the community goes back to 1953 when I first operation took place in the basement of an apartment with Russian priests in the effort of the Greeks of the time to keep the Greek and Orthodox identity.
Initially as the Community of Christ , later the same year under the guidance of the Holy Archdiocese renamed Holy Transfiguration Cathedral and until this year was working in a parlor house was purchased by members of the community.
This year for the first time in the history of Hellenism in Alaska , summer believers will have their own church . Entirely by donations and revenue of the annual festival o Byzantine style church will house not only the Greeks, but also for many other Orthodox of the region , such as French , Serbs , Arabs , Armenians , Romanians , Slavs , Ukrainians and Americans.
The teacher of Greek school community of the Saviour , Mary Mr Basques , with our collaborator Athena Krikeli
Speaking to Voice of America after the Sunday Liturgy the priest said : ” I have been here eight years and I love every moment I spend here . Our operations are somewhat reminiscent of the meaning of America . Here come every Orthodox country , and when it reaches the time of Our Father , who are foreigners here say to turn the prayer in their own language . It is the church that holds all these orthodox knit . I believe that every Christian, wherever he is , understands the need for the Orthodox community , will help in any way for the completion of the temple , “concluded the priest Leo Sefe .
It is worth mentioning that in the community and taught Greek folk dances .
Orthodox Mission in Ireland through the ages
Traces the history of the Church of Ireland , the early Irish church : founded by St. Patrick . The early Irish church was primarily monastic character , but gradually took shape and the bishops took an upward trend . In 1534 , the English Parliament declared Henry VIII head of the Church of England in response to the Pope’s refusal to grant the annulment of marriage to Catherine of Aragon . Two years later , the Irish Parliament declared him head of the Church of Ireland. Initially the dispute was the jurisdiction of one while Henry considered desirable independence from the papacy , was theologically Catholic. However , the successors of Henry VIII , Edward VI (1547-1553) and Elizabeth I (1558-1603) was more reformers and their reign marked the introduction of Protestantism as the Church of Ireland and the Church of Anglias.I regeneration divides the Irish church . The established Church of Ireland was Protestant , state approved and ypostiirichthike . The Roman Catholic Church was regarded with hostility and suspicion by the authorities, but nevertheless supported by the majority of people , especially outside Dublin , where the power of the crown was weaker . Any church that was retained by the original successor of the pre – Irish reformed church . The plantation of Ulster in 1610 saw the introduction of Presbyterianism in Ireland. The fourth major Christian church in Ireland today , the Methodist church , dating from the first visit to Ireland by John Wesley in 1747 .
Ireland experienced the true faith , Orthodoxy , from the early 5th century AD, and therein flourished for many centuries as Celtic Orthodox monasticism . Irish monks Christianize the pagans English in the 6th century and lasted unadulterated Orthodoxy from heresy impurities until 1171 AD when the Anglo-Norman invaders Irish imposed by force of arms the Papacy . So numerous saints exagiasan the presence of the green Isle of even.
Our first stop Anglican Cathedral of St. Patrick ( the Illuminator of Ireland – March 17 ) . Built in Channel rate ( Gothic ) attracts many exhibits. We are interested that 70 meters from there is the sacred well where , according to tradition , St. Patrick baptized pagans . In the mountains of Ouikloou in a narrow wooded valley , we meet the first Irish monastery which transports us to the Orthodox country’s past . Said Gklentalocha ( canyon with two lakes) and reminds us that in these places lived in the 6th century a hermit , St. Kevin ( June 3 ) . Between the two lakes is preserved cave where the hermit . His tomb is said how the ruined church of the Theotokos in the grounds of the monastery .
In Gouotervill , seaside resort where too loved Charlie Chaplin , the cold air masses from the Atlantic breathtaking. In a sharp turn downhill . Before us what vast Ocean and something small rocky islands emerge . Are Skeligk , the Great Skeligk or Skeligk Michael (where the 7th century saint Feeney – September 10th – a monastery which existed for 600 years ) and the Small Skeligk . There he lived with much suffering Irish monks for many centuries . The accommodations are saved on the steep slopes of the islands .
According to the last census in 2011 and the International Reports on Religion in Ireland there are about 45000 thousand Orthodox Christianoi.To percentage has increased so that the Orthodox Church has an upward trend. The largest center of Orthodoxy in the country is the Swords and the city Fingal.I census also showed that the majority of Orthodox Christians in Ireland are Romanians (26 % ) , Irish (20 % ) and Latvia ( 12.5 % ) .
The Orthodox Church is known in Ireland since the 11th century , but after the conquest by the British , the reference to ” Orthodox ” was then removed intentionally by the Pope . Since Orthodoxy in this country is particularly dear to the Irish .
The rich liturgical life , the integrity of the faith of the Orthodox Church is a proposal against the Protestants and Roman Catholics who live in strife .
( St. Evanthia ) (http://www.dogma.gr/default.php?pname=Article&art_id=3061&catid=25)
Orthodox Mission to the Slavs
In 863 , after the request of the Slav ruler of Moravia Ratislavou when emperor of the Byzantine Empire was Michael the Third , Patriarch Photios chose and Methodius
Cyril , who were distinguished for their wisdom , for the hard work of Christianization of the Slavs . The two clergymen accepted with alacrity and joy , believing that in this way would serve the will of God and will lead to the path of salvation peoples of the regions that were above the northern border of the Empire .
In order to facilitate their approach to these people , they used a new alphabet based on Greek , which could give the sounds of the Slavic language , which was invented by Cyril . In this alphabet named Glagolitiko , translated the Bible , polla functional and theological books , and the Christian liturgical . Top Glagolitiko alphabet based on the current and Cyrillic script ( so named in honor of Cyril ) of Slavic nations and developed over this entire secretariat them .
The enlightening their mission there caused the rage , jealousy and hatred in parts of the Frankish and German- Latin clergy and was the reason for the existence of tensions between the church and politics. Missionaries brothers were forced by Pope Avdriavo ton B to come to Rome to apologize to allegations that violate the trilingual dogma , according to which the Christian rite can be performed only in Evraiki , the Greek and Latin languages . There St. Cyril argued that all peoples , like the Slavs , are entitled to praise God and to create a culture in their native language . Pope Avdriavos o B unconvinced , sanctified the translated books , and in some churches of Rome celebrated function in the Slavic language , for recognition in the Christian world . It is a successful mission of Saints brothers .
Cyril remained in Rome until his death , in February 869 . He was buried with values in staff tomb of Pope Avdriavou ton II, and later moved to the royal St.Clement in Rome , where he now kept his remains .
The Christian enlightening and apostolic work continues his senior brother Methodius , who died on 6 April 885 as bishop of Moravian . ( Mary C. ) (http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki)
b ) Being a missionary dangerous. Initially great is the risk to fall victim to racism and face rejection , derision and irony of others. Also tucked in countries other religions thus creates enemies and tucked so targeted. Still it is very likely that others treat him with suspicion and must fight hard to win the trust of others . Because of these risks from being a missionary needs to draw power from somewhere . This force that stimulates the great and unshakable faith in the Greek Orthodox religion and of course the love he feels for his fellow man and his will to spread throughout the Christian religion .